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9 - Anti-Kell and anti-C alloimmunization: report of three cases
Fatih Bolat, Ali Bülbül, Sinan Uslu, Serdar Cömert, Emrah Can, Asiye Nuhoğlu
Hemolytic disease of the newborn is characterized by the transfer of antibodies to fetus which was produced against the antigens on the erythrocytes. Due to widespread use of Rh immunoglobulin for prevention of Rh hemolytic disease, the importance of hemolytic disease due to antibodies other than anti-D has increased. The spectrum of the disease varies from mild hyperbilirubinemia to severe hys fetalis.
In this report, three neonates hospitalized for hyperbilirubinemia and anemia who were diagnosed to have subgroup incompatibility were presented. Case I was a term newborn with hyperbilirubinemia detected at postnatal 22nd hour without any abnormal physical finding except for generalized jaundice. The neonate whose Direct Coombs test was positive and had anemia, was treated with phototherapy and IVIG. Subgroup analysis revealed anti-C antibodies. Case II was a term neonate admitted due to hyperbilirubinemia at postnatal 5th day. After he was treated with phototherapy for 48 hours, bilirubin levels decreased to 12 mg/dl. After termination of phototherapy, rebound bilirubin levels increased to 18 mg/dl. Anti-kell antibodies were detected in subgroup analysis. Case III was admitted at postnatal 24th hour due to hyperbilirubinemia. A sibling who died in neonatal period with a history of exchange transfusion at postnatal 2nd day was recorded. Physical examination was normal except jaundice and a murmur with 2/6 intensity at mesocardiac area. IVIG was given to the neonate with Direct Coombs positivity. Subgroup analysis confirmed the presence of anti-kell antibodies. Exchange transfusion was performed with Kell negative blood.
The importance of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to subgroup incompatibility has increased. Subgroup incompatibilities which were thought only to cause mild anemia is now considered to cause severe obstetric and neonatal complications. Newborns with hemolytic anemia should thoroughly be evaluated for subgroup incompatibility.
Keywords: Newborn, hyperbilirubinemia, hemolytic anemia, subgroup incompatibility
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